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Human beings are so good at adapting that it is difficult to quantify the effects of environmental stress. We can acclimatize and continue to function in very unpleasant circumstances, and the harmful effects of that acclimatization may not show up for many years.
Earlier in this unit you learned about the direct object of short-form verbs. If the direct object of a short-form verb is definite (see Unit 4), it is preceeded by the preposition o: Welais i ddim car - I didn’t see a car. Welais i ddim o’r car - I didn’t see the car. Theimlais i ddim poen - I didn’t feel any pain. Theimlais i ddim o’r boen - I didn’t feel the pain. Chlywais i ddim ci - I didn’t hear a dog. Chlywais i ddim o’r ci - I didn’t hear the dog. Phrynais i ddim llyfr - I didn’t buy a book. Phrynais i ddim o’r llyfr - I didn’t buy the book. In everyday speech, ddim o becomes contracted to mo: Phrynais i mo’r llyfr. You will have noticed that some verb–nouns are followed by certain prepositions, for instance cwrdd â, to meet, ymweld â, to visit, edrych ar, to look at. These are discussed in greater detail in Unit 15. If the verb–noun in the sentence is followed by a particular preposition, mo is not used. Ymwelais i ddim â fy mam - I didn’t visit my mother. Edrychais i ddim ar y teledu - I didn’t watch the television. Many prepositions in Welsh decline. You have seen an example of this when you learned the pattern mae rhaid iddo fe. The preposition i declined before fe, hi and nhw (iddo fe, iddi hi, iddyn nhw). Here are the forms of the preposition o: ohono i of me Welodd e ddim ohono i - He didn’t see me. ohonot ti of you Welodd e ddim ohonot ti - He didn’t see you. ohono fe of him Welodd e ddim ohono fe - He didn’t see him/it. ohoni hi - of her. Welodd e ddim ohoni hi - He didn’t see her/it. ohonon ni of us Welodd e ddim ohonon ni - He didn’t see us. ohonoch chi of you Welodd e ddim ohonoch chi - He didn’t see you. ohonyn nhw of them Welodd e ddim ohonyn nhw - He didn’t see them. The word wrth also declines. You will have noticed in Deialog 2 that Tom said ‘ffoniais i hi neithiwr i ddweud wrthi hi’ (I phoned her last night to tell her). Dweud wrth means 'to tell to'. Look at the forms of the preposition wrth: wrtho i Dwedodd e wrtho i - He told me. wrthot ti Dwedodd e wrthot ti - He told you. wrtho fe Dwedodd hi wrtho fe - She told him. wrthi hi Dwedais i wrthi hi - I told her. wrthon ni Dwedon nhw wrthon ni - They told us. wrthoch chi Dwedon ni wrthoch chi - We told you. wrthyn nhw Dwedaist ti wrthyn nhw - You told them.
Top tips for the best man/woman: Thank the groom for the speech and for the bridesmaids’/pageboys’ gifts etc. Add some spice and humour to the occasion. Include some stories about the groom. Prepare some props to enliven the stories. Stories and funny incidents are great but beware of embarrassing the couple or their relatives. Raise a toast for absent friends and any e-mails and cards from them can be read out.
When you make changes to your life, you may come up against opposition. You might expect that from other people but be less prepared for the obstacles you, yourself, may put in your way. It’s as important to recognize and be prepared for your own objections as for those of others.
A wedding speech should be short and sharp with sizzle.
If you don't take the first step to break the ice, then you are leaving it to luck for friends to find you.
The usual assumption is that you have to take benefits from a pension at a certain age, but more often than not this is no longer the case and you will have a degree of flexibility about when you take benefits. If you have this choice and you don't need the income, for example,if you are continuing to work, then you will need to weigh up the benefits of taking the pension at the original date or delaying in order to receive a greater income later.
Cuando llegue María se lo diré points to something which is not yet a reality. Compare this with Cuando llega María prepara la cena When Maria arrives she prepares dinner , an action which is a fact and which does not require the subjunctive.
33 ﾠ Can The vowel ‘a’ in can has two different pronunciations, one strong / æ / and one weak / ә /. The vowel ‘a’ in can't / a: / is different from the two pronunciations of ‘a’ in can .
Ja means basically already, but it often serves (as in the last sentence of the dialogue) simply to reinforce a verb and may not be translated into English.
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